Research Papers: Polar and Arctic Engineering

A Three-Dimensional Model for Ice Rubble Pile-Ice Sheet-Conical Structure Interaction at the Piers of Confederation Bridge, Canada

[+] Author and Article Information
Chee K. Wong

Schulich School of Engineering,
Department of Civil Engineering,
University of Calgary,
2500 University Drive, N.W.,
Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
e-mail: wongck@ucalgary.ca

Thomas G. Brown

Schulich School of Engineering,
Department of Civil Engineering,
University of Calgary,
2500 University Drive, N.W.,
Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 18, 2017; final manuscript received January 5, 2018; published online May 21, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Søren Ehlers.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 140(5), 051501 (May 21, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: OMAE-17-1168; doi: 10.1115/1.4039261 History: Received September 18, 2017; Revised January 05, 2018

Offshore structures constructed in waters where ice cover is prevalent for several months a year are subjected to ice loading. Some of these structures are conical or sloped-faced in shape, where flexural failure becomes the dominant mode of failure for the ice sheet. The flexural failure mode reduces the magnitude of ice-structure interaction loads in comparison to other modes of failure. Various researchers have devised flexural failure models for ice-conical structure interactions. Each model shares the same principle of the ice sheet being modeled as a beam on an elastic foundation, but each model has different limitations in precisely simulating the interaction. Some models do not incorporate the ice rubble pile, while other models make oversimplified assumptions for three-dimensional behavior. The proposed three-dimensional (3D) model aims to reduce some of these limitations with the following features: (1) modeling the geometry of the ice rubble pile around the conical pier using the results of small-scale tests, (2) modeling the loads exerted by the ice rubble pile on the conical structure and ice sheet with a rigorous method of slices, (3) adding driving forces in keeping the rubble pile intact and in upward motion during the interaction, (4) accounting for eccentric offsetting moments at the ice-structure contacts, and (5) modeling the flexural behavior of the ice sheet subject to ice rubble loads using finite element method. The proposed model is used to analyze the interaction events recorded at the conical piers of the Confederation Bridge over a period of 11 years.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Bekker, A. T. , Sabodash, O. A. , and Kochev, A. Y. , 2011, “Analysis of Ice Loads on Offshore Structures for Okhotsk Sea Oil & Gas Fields,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2011-49596.
Afanas'ev, V. P. , Dolgopolov, Y. V. , and Shraishtein, Z. I. , 1973, Ice Pressure on Individual Marine Structures, in Studies in Ice Physics and Engineering, Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, Israel, pp. 50–68.
Bercha, F. G. , and Danys, J. V. , 1975, “Prediction of Ice Forces on Conical Offshore Structures,” Third International Symposium on Ice Problems, Hanover, NH, Aug. 18–21, pp. 447–458. https://trid.trb.org/view/51837
Pearce, J. C. , and Strickland, G. E. , 1979, “Ice Forces on Conical Structures,” 11th Offshore Technology Conference (OTC), Houston, TX, Apr. 30–May 3, pp. 2407–2414. https://trid.trb.org/view/87842
Brooks, L. D. , 1981, “Ice Resistance Equations for Fixed Conical Structures,” POAC Ice Symposium, Quebec City, QC, Canada, July 27–31, pp. 90–99.
Ralston, T. D. , 1979, “Plastic Limit Analysis of Sheet Ice Loads on Conical Structures,” Physics and Mechanics of Ice, Springer, Berlin, pp. 289–308. [CrossRef]
Croasdale, K. R. , 1980, Ice Forces on Fixed Rigid Structures,” First IAHR State-of-the-Art Report on Ice Forces on Structures, Hanover, NH, CRREL Special Report No. 80-26.
Hetényi, M. , 1946, Beams on an Elastic Foundation, The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
Croasdale, K. R. , Cammaert, A. B. , and Metge, M. , 1994, “A Method for the Calculation of Sheet Ice Loads on Sloping Structures,” 12th IAHR International Symposium on Ice, Trondheim, Norway, Aug. 23–26, pp. 874–885.
Nevel, D. E. , 1992, “Ice Forces on Cones From Floes,” 11th IAHR Ice Symposium, Banff, AB, Canada, June 15–19, pp. 1391–1404.
Mayne, D. C. , 2007, “Level Ice and Rubble Actions on Offshore Conical and Sloping Structures,” Ph.D. thesis, The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
Paavilainen, J. , Tuhkuri, J. , and Polojärvi, A. , 2011, “2D Numerical Simulations of Ice Rubble Formation Process Against an Inclined Structure,” Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 68(1–2), pp. 20–34. [CrossRef]
Paavilainen, J. , and Tuhkuri, J. , 2013, “Pressure Distributions and Force Chains During Simulated Ice Rubbling Against Sloped Structures,” Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 85, pp. 157–174. [CrossRef]
Lu, W. , Lubbad, R. , Høyland, K. , and Løset, S. , 2014, “Physical Model and Theoretical Model Study of Level Ice and Wide Sloping Structure Interactions,” Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 101, pp. 40–72. [CrossRef]
Brown, T. G. , and Croasdale, K. R. , 1997, “Confederation Bridge Ice Force Monitoring Joint Industry Project Annual Report – 1997,” IFN Engineering, Calgary, AB, Canada, Report No. 96-3-001.
Brown, T. G. , 2008, “Confederation Bridge Ice Monitoring,” ASCE Structures Congress, Vancouver, BC, Canada, Apr. 24–26, pp. 1–10.
Tibbo, J. S. , 2010, “Flexural Failure of Sea Ice—Analysis of Interactions at the Confederation Bridge and Assessment of Selected Prediction Techniques,” M.Sc. thesis, The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
Fredlund, D. G. , and Krahn, J. , 1976, “Comparison of Slope Stability Methods of Analysis,” Can. Geotech. J., 14(3), pp. 429–439. [CrossRef]
Wong, C. K. , 2014, “Development of a Three-Dimensional Model for Ice Rubble Interactions on Conical Structures,” M.Sc. thesis, The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
GeoStudio, 2007, “GeoSlope User Manual, v. 1.0,” GEO-SLOPE International Ltd., Calgary, AB, Canada.
Beer, F. P. , and Johnston , E. R., Jr ., 1992, Mechanics of Materials, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company Ltd, London.
Sanderson, T. J. O. , 1988, Ice Mechanics: Risks to Offshore Structures, Graham and Trotman Ltd., London, UK.
Hibbeler, R. C. , 2013, Engineering Mechanics Statics, 12th ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Dassault Systèmes S.A., 2010, “ABAQUS Finite Element Analysis, Version 6.10,” Dassault Systèmes S.A, Vélizy-Villacoublay, France.
Williams, F. M. , 1996, “Ice Features and Ice Mechanical Properties in the Northumberland Strait,” International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Los Angeles, CA, May 26–30, Paper No. ISOPE-I-96-143 https://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/ISOPE-I-96-143?sort=&start=0&q=Ice+Features+and+Ice+Mechanical+Properties+in+the+Northumberland+Strait&from_year=&peer_reviewed=&published_between=&fromSearchResults=true&to_year=&rows=25#.
Prinsenberg, S. J. , and Peterson, I. K. , 2000, “Observing Pack Ice Properties With a Helicopter-Borne Video-Laser-GPS System,” Tenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Seattle, WA, May 28–June 2, Paper No. ISOPE-I-00-104 https://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/ISOPE-I-00-104?sort=&start=0&q=Observing+Pack+Ice+Properties+With+a+Helicopter-+Borne+Video-Laser-GPS+System&from_year=&peer_reviewed=&published_between=&fromSearchResults=true&to_year=&rows=10#.
Määttänen, M. , and Hoikkanen, J. , 1990, “The Effect of Ice Pile-Up on the Ice Force of a Conical Structure,” Tenth IAHR International Symposium on Ice, Espoo, Finland, Aug. 20–23, pp. 1010–1021.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Instrumented Pier 31, Confederation Bridge [15]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Ice rubble pile formation at the confederation bridge pier

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Illustration of (a) horizontal ice sheet movement as opposed to (b) radial ice sheet movement. There would be no ice sheet pieces accumulating on the cone structure in radial movement.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Finite element mesh for the ice sheet

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Ice rubble pile geometry of the middle section

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Rubble model of test setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Ice sheet divided into ten horizontal strip sections with section 1-1 being the middle section. Each sheet section analyzed also includes the rubble pile on top of the sheet.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

(a) Ice rubble pile of event no. 1 with slices and (b) passive case with horizontal driving force, PD

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Illustration of a rubble load, Wi, acting at a distance ai, this is the assumption presented for all strip sections around the cone

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

(a) Ice rubble load patterns on ten strip sections of the ice sheet for event no. 1. Illustration of the top view of the sheet with weight, Wi, and distance, ai, components labeled and (b) ice rubble load patterns on ten strip sections of the ice sheet for event no. 1. General view.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Flexural stress at initial contact between ice sheet and cone with ice rubble loads (event no. 1)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Illustration of breaking forces and offset moments

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Displacement s of the ice sheet up the conical slopewith horizontal and vertical components, sx and sz, respectively (sy component is zero). This displacement occurs along section 1-1.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Plan view illustrating the arc angle β for ice sheet-conical pier interaction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Uplift displacement of the ice sheet when s = 0.10 m for full contact

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Comparison of model predicted loads and actual measured loads with total weight of the ice rubble pile for each interaction event

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Flexural stress distribution of the sheet at flexural failure for event no. 1 (s = 0.125 m)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Comparison of measured and predicted loads for ten events from the confederation bridge



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In