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Research Papers: Offshore Technology

Distributed Co-simulation of Maritime Systems and Operations

[+] Author and Article Information
Severin Sadjina

SINTEF Ålesund,
Ålesund NO-6009, Norway
e-mail: severin.sadjina@sintef.no

Lars Tandle Kyllingstad

SINTEF Ocean,
Trondheim NO-7465, Norway
e-mail: lars.kyllingstad@sintef.no

Martin Rindarøy

SINTEF Ocean,
Trondheim NO-7465, Norway
e-mail: martin.rindaroy@sintef.no

Stian Skjong

SINTEF Ocean,
Trondheim NO-7465, Norway
e-mail: stian.skjong@sintef.no

Vilmar Æsøy

Department of Marine Technology,
Norwegian University of Science and
Technology,
Trondheim NO-7491, Norway
e-mail: vilmar.aesoy@ntnu.no

Eilif Pedersen

Department of Marine Technology,
Norwegian University of
Science and Technology,
Trondheim NO-7491, Norway
e-mail: eilif.pedersen@ntnu.no

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received March 18, 2017; final manuscript received May 30, 2018; published online September 12, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Marcelo R. Martins.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 141(1), 011302 (Sep 12, 2018) (13 pages) Paper No: OMAE-17-1037; doi: 10.1115/1.4040473 History: Received March 18, 2017; Revised May 30, 2018

Here, we present the concept of an open virtual prototyping framework (VPF) for maritime systems and operations that enables its users to develop reusable component or subsystem models, and combine them in full-system simulations for prototyping, verification, training, and performance studies. This framework consists of a set of guidelines for model coupling, high-level and low-level coupling interfaces to guarantee interoperability, a full-system simulation software, and example models and demonstrators. We discuss the requirements for such a framework, address the challenges and the possibilities in fulfilling them, and aim to give a list of best practices for modular and efficient virtual prototyping and full-system simulation. The context of our work is within maritime systems and operations, but the issues and solutions we present here are general enough to be of interest to a much broader audience, both industrial and scientific.

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Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Topics: Simulation
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Maritime systems and operations include a wide range of different engineering domains and physical systems with varying complexity and time scales. This, naturally, makes full-system simulation a challenging endeavor.

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Fig. 2

In a co-simulation setting, different tools and models are interconnected and used independently and in parallel to form a full-system simulation

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Fig. 3

A residual power δPk=−(Pk1+Pk2) emerges and distorts the dynamics of the full system when energy is exchanged between two subsimulators, S1 and S2, in a co-simulation

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Fig. 4

Energy-conservation-based error estimation (red) compared to the actual error in the power ΔP (gray) as a function of the co-simulation step size Δt for the benchmark model in Ref. [10]. The critical step size is Δt ≈ 0.059 s.

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Fig. 5

Different levels of modeled modularity of systems on board a ship

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Fig. 6

Example of system modularization for a ship model with a special focus on power-system dynamics

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Fig. 7

Illustration showing how propulsors, crane, trawl, and environment subsimulators have been connected for ViProMa. The system includes subsimulators (green) as well as FUs (blue).

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Fig. 8

Illustration showing how a diesel electric generator, a switchboard, and an electric motor subsimulator have been connected in ViProMa. The system includes subsimulators (green) as well as FUs (blue).

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Fig. 9

Hardware-in-the-Loop co-simulation case study with an Arduino UNO microcontroller as a DP controller

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Fig. 10

A diagram that shows the various components in a Coral simulation. Everything inside the dashed rectangle is formally part of Coral. By API/EXE, we mean that the functionality is offered both in the form of a C++ programming interface and as a ready-made executable application.

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