Research Papers: CFD and VIV

Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Nonlinear Sloshing in a Rotating Rectangular Tank Using the Level Set Method

[+] Author and Article Information
Erlend Liavåg Grotle

Faculty of Marine Technology and Operations,
Norwegian University of
Science and Technology,
Aalesund 6009, Norway
e-mail: grotle@ntnu.no

Hans Bihs

Marine Civil Engineering,
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Norwegian University of
Science and Technology,
Trondheim 7491, Norway
e-mail: hans.bihs@ntnu.no

Vilmar Æsøy

Faculty of Marine Technology and Operations,
Norwegian University of
Science and Technology,
Aalesund 6009, Norway
e-mail: vilmar.aesoy@ntnu.no

Eilif Pedersen

Department of Marine Technology,
Norwegian University of
Science and Technology,
Trondheim 7491, Norway
e-mail: eilif.pedersen@ntnu.no

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received August 12, 2016; final manuscript received June 6, 2018; published online September 12, 2018. Editor: Lance Manuel.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 140(6), 061806 (Sep 12, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: OMAE-16-1093; doi: 10.1115/1.4040560 History: Received August 12, 2016; Revised June 06, 2018

In this paper, numerical simulations of nonlinear sloshing in rectangular tanks are presented. Model implementations in the open source software reef3d are tested, and the results are compared with experimental data from three different conditions. The interface location is compared for both linear and nonlinear sloshing. The nonlinear sloshing is simulated in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D). Video images from the SPHERIC project are compared with simulations for the interface. A condition with lateral wave impacts in sloshing, with a frequency close to the natural frequency of the first mode, can be found in this case. The numerical model is solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations with the kω turbulence model. The level set method is used to capture the interface. Higher order discretization schemes are implemented to handle time-evolution and convective fluxes. A ghost cell method is used to account for solid boundaries and parallel computations. It is found that the limiting factor for the eddy-viscosity has significant influence in the nonlinear sloshing cases. As the sloshing becomes more violent, the increased strain at the gas–liquid interface overproduces turbulence energy with unrealistically high damping of the motion. Three-dimensional simulations show slightly better comparison than 2D. Due to nonlinearities and small damping, the time to reach steady-state may take several cycles. The last case shows promising results for the global motion. As expected, the breakup of the liquid surface makes it difficult to resolve each phase. But overall, the numerical model predicts the sloshing motion reasonably well.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Comparison of grid spacing

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Fig. 3

Wave elevation in case 1

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Fig. 4

Two-dimensional simulations of case 2

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Fig. 5

Three-dimensional simulations of case 2

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Fig. 6

Case 3—video captions of experiments and simulations showing a spilling breaker [25]

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Fig. 7

Case 3—video captions of wave impact

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Fig. 8

Case 3—velocity field of a spilling wave

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Fig. 9

Case 3—velocity field of wave impact



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