0
Research Papers: Offshore Technology

Development of Fatigue Design Standards for Marine Structures

[+] Author and Article Information
Inge Lotsberg

DNV GL,
Veritasveien 1,
Høvik 1322, Norway
e-mail: Inge.Lotsberg@dnvgl.com

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 25, 2017; final manuscript received June 9, 2018; published online January 17, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Carlos Guedes Soares.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 141(3), 031301 (Jan 17, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: OMAE-17-1223; doi: 10.1115/1.4041993 History: Received December 25, 2017; Revised June 09, 2018

Fatigue design standards for offshore structures became needed with development of offshore structures in harsh environments like the North Sea during the 1970s. The need for fatigue design of ship structures became increased as more high strength steel was being used in these structures during the 1970s. New types of structures and structural components have been developed such as tension leg platforms and floating production platforms and support structures for wind turbines. These structures are subjected to significant dynamic loading such that fatigue design becomes the main issue and relevant fatigue design standards are needed. This paper gives an overview of the development of fatigue design standards for marine structures over the last 40 years.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

DNV, 2002, “Design of Titanium Risers,” DNV, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. DNV-RP-F201.
DNV, 2012, “Offshore Concrete Structures,” DNV, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. DNV-OS-C502. https://rules.dnvgl.com/docs/pdf/DNV/codes/docs/2010-10/OS-C502.pdf
DNV, 2016, “Fatigue Design of Offshore Steel Structures,” DNV GL, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. DNVGL-RP-C203. https://rules.dnvgl.com/docs/pdf/DNVGL/RP/2016-04/DNVGL-RP-C203.pdf
ISO, 2007, “Fixed Steel Structures,” International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, Standard No. 19902.
BS, 2014, “Code of Practice for Fatigue Design and Assessment of Steel Structures,” British Standards Institution, London, Standard No. BS 7608.
DNV, 2012, “Fatigue Methodology for Offshore Ships,” DNV, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. DNV-RP-C206. https://rules.dnvgl.com/docs/pdf/DNV/codes/docs/2010-10/RP-C206.pdf
IACS, 2014, “Common Structural Rules for Bulk Carriers and Oil Tankers,” International Association of Classification Societies, London.
DNV, 2018, “Fatigue Assessment of Ship Structures,” DNV GL, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. DNVGL-CG-0129. https://rules.dnvgl.com/docs/pdf/DNVGL/CG/2015-10/DNVGL-CG-0129.pdf
NORSOK, 2013, “Design of Steel Structures—Rev. 3,” Norsk Sokkels Konkuranseposisjon, Lysaker, Norway, Standard No. N-004.
Vughts, J. H. , and Kinra, R. K. , 1976, “Probabilistic Fatigue Analysis of Fixed Offshore Structures,” Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 3–6, OTC Paper No. OTC-2608-MS.
DNV GL, 2015, “Design of Offshore Wind Turbine Structures,” DNV GL, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. DNVGL-ST-0126.
DNV, 2018, “Fatigue Design of Offshore Steel Structures,” DNV GL, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. DNVGL-RP-C203.
DNV, 1974, “Rules for the Design, Construction and Inspection of Fixed Offshore Structures,” Det Norske Veritas, Oslo, Norway.
DNV, 1977, “Rules for the Construction and Inspection of Offshore Structures,” Det Norske Veritas, Oslo, Norway.
Gurney, T. R. , 1976, “Fatigue Design Rules Welded Steel Joints,” Weld. Inst. Res. Bull., 17(5), p. 5.
Paris, P. C. , Gomez, M. P. , and Anderson, W. P. , 1961, “A Rational Analytic Theory of Fatigue,” Trend Eng., 13(9), pp. 9–14.
NORSOK, 2012, “Integrity of Offshore Structures,” Norsk Sokkels Konkuranseposisjon, Lysaker, Norway, Standard No. N-001.
NPD, 1977, Regulations for the Structural Design of Fixed Structures on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, Stavanger, Norway.
Department of Energy, 1977, Offshore Installations: Guidance on Design and Construction, 2nd ed., Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London.
API RP, 1977, 2A Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms, 9th ed., American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC.
Gurney, T. , 1979, “The Influence of Thickness on the Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints,” Second International Conference on the Behaviour of Offshore Structures (BOSS'79), London, Aug. 28–31.
Radenkovic, D. , 1981, “Stress Analysis in Tubular Joints,” International Conference on Steel in Marine Structures, Paris, France, Oct. 5–8, pp. 53–95.
Pozzolini, P. F. , 1981, “Test on Tubular Joints,” International Conference on Steel in Marine Structures, Paris, France, Oct. 5–8, pp. 98–145.
Investigation Committee, 1981, The Alexander L. Kielland Accident: Report of a Norwegian Public Commission Appointed by Royal Decree on March 28, 1980, Presented to the Ministry of Justice and Police, March 1981.
BS, 1980, “Part 10, Code of Practise for Fatigue. Steel, Concrete and Composite Bridges,” British Standard Institution, London, Standard No. BS 5400.
Department of Energy, 1984, Offshore Installations: Guidance on Design, Construction and Certification, 3rd ed., Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London.
DNV, 1984, Classification Note No 30.2, Fatigue Strength Analysis for Mobile Offshore Units, DNV, Oslo, Norway.
NS, 1984, “Design of Steel Structures,” Norges Standardiseringsforbund, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. NS 3472.
NORSOK, 1998, Design of Steel Structures, Norwegian Technology Standard Institution, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. N-004.
Almar-Næss , ed., 1985, Fatigue Handbook, Offshore Structures, Tapir Forlag, Trondheim, Norway.
HSE, 1990, Offshore Installations: Guidance on Design, Construction and Certification, 4th ed., Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London.
HSE, 1995, Offshore Installations: Guidance on Design, Construction and Certification, 3rd Amendment to 4th ed., Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London.
HSE, 1999, Background to New Fatigue Guidance for Steel Joints and Connections in Offshore Structures, Offshore Technology Report, Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London, Report No. OTH 92390.
Hobbacher, A. , ed., 1996, Fatigue Design of Welded Joints and Components, Abington Publishing, Cambridge, UK.
IIW, 1982, “Design Recommendations for Cyclic Loaded Welded Steel Structures,” Weld. World, 20(7/8), pp. 153–165.
Hobbacher, A. , 2009, Recommendations for Fatigue Design of Welded Joints and Components, The Welding Research Council, Inc., New York.
EN, 2005, “Eurocode 3 Design of Steel Structures—Part 1–9: Fatigue,” European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, Standard No. EN-1993-1-9.
NS, 1998, “Design of Steel Structures,” Norges standardiseringsforbund, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. NS 3472.
Lotsberg, I. , and Larsen, P. K. , 2001, “Developments in Fatigue Design Standards for Offshore Structures,” 11th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE), Stavanger, Norway, June 17–22, Paper No. ISOPE-I-01-344. https://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/ISOPE-I-01-344
DNV, 2000, “Fatigue Design of Offshore Steel Structures,” DNV, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. DNV-RP-C203.
Lotsberg, I. , 2005, “Background for Revision of DNV-RP-C203 Fatigue Analysis of Offshore Steel Structures,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2005-67549.
Lotsberg, I. , 2010, “Background for New Revision of DNV-RP-C203 Fatigue Design of Offshore Steel Structures,” ASME Paper No. OME2010-20469.
Lotsberg, I. , Fjeldstad, A. , and Ronold, K. O. , 2016, “Background for the Revision of the DNVGL-RP-C203 Fatigue Design of Offshore Steel Structures,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2016-54939.
Lotsberg, I. , 2014, “Assessment of the Size Effect for Use in Design Standards for Fatigue Analysis,” J. Fatigue, 66, pp. 86–100. [CrossRef]
Lotsberg, I. , 2009, “Assessment of Design Criteria for Fatigue Cracking From Weld Toes Subjected to Proportional Loading,” J. Ships Offshore Struct., 4(2), pp. 175–187. [CrossRef]
Germanischer Lloyd, 1976, “Rules for the Construction and Inspection of Offshore Installations,” Vol. I—Offshore Units, Hamburg, Germany.
Radaj, D. , 1996, “Review of Fatigue Strength Assessment of Nonwelded and Welded Structures Based on Local Parameters,” Int. J. Fatigue, 18(3), pp. 153–170. [CrossRef]
Radaj, D. , Sonsino, C. M. , and Fricke, W. , 2006, Fatigue Assessment of Welded Joints by Local Approaches, 2nd ed., Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK.
Fricke, W. , 2012, IIW Recommendations for the Fatigue Assessment of Welded Structures by Notch Stress Analysis, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK.
Fricke, W. , 2013, “IIW Guideline for the Assessment of Weld Root Fatigue,” Weld. World, 57(6), pp. 753–791. [CrossRef]
Toor, K. K. , and Lotsberg, I. , 2017, “Assessment of Fatigue Strength of Welded Connections on Thick Plates,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2017-61143.
DNV GL, 2015, “Probabilistic Methods for Planning of Inspection for Fatigue Cracks in Offshore Structures,” DNV GL, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. DNVGL-RP-C210.
Lotsberg, I. , Sigurdsson, G. , Fjeldstad, A. , and Moan, T. , 2016, “Probabilistic Methods for Planning Inspection of Fatigue Cracks in Offshore Structures,” Mar. Struct., 46, pp. 167–192. [CrossRef]
Efthymiou, M. , 1988, “Development of SCF Formulae and Generalised Influence Functions for Use in Fatigue Analysis,” OTJ'88 Recent Developments in Tubular Joints Technology, Surrey, UK, Oct. 4–5.
API, 2000, “Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms—Working Stress Design,” American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC, Standard No. RP 2A-WSD.
Smedley, S. , and Fischer, P. J. , 1991, “Stress Concentration Factors for Ring-Stiffened Tubular Joints,” First International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE), Edinburgh, Scotland, Aug. 11–16, pp. 239–250.
Stacey, A. , Sharp, J. V. , and Nichols, N. W. , 1997, “Fatigue Performance of Single-Sided Circumferential and Closure Welds in Offshore Jacket Structures,” 16th Interantional Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Yokohama, Japan, Apr. 13–17.
Lotsberg, I. , 1998, “Stress Concentration Factors at Circumferential Welds in Tubulars,” J. Mar. Struct., 11(6), pp. 203–230. [CrossRef]
Lotsberg, I. , 2009, “Stress Concentration Due to Misalignment at Butt Welds in Plated Structures and at Girth Welds in Tubulars,” Int. J. Fatigue, 31(8–9), pp. 1337–1345. [CrossRef]
NORSOK, 2015, “Assessment of Structural Integrity for Existing Offshore Load-Bearing Structures,” NORSOK, Lysaker, Norway, Standard No. N-006. https://www.standard.no/en/sectors/energi-og-klima/petroleum/norsok-standard-categories/n-structural/n-0061/
Lotsberg, I. , Sigurdsson, G. , Arnesen, K. , and Hall, M. E. , 2010, “Recommended Design Fatigue Factors for Reassessment of Piles Subjected to Dynamic Actions From Pile Driving,” ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng., 132(4), p. 041603. [CrossRef]
ISO, 2014, “Welding—Fusion-Welded Joints in Steel, Nickel, Titanium and Their Alloys (Beam Welding Excluded) Quality Levels for Imperfections,” International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, Standard No. ISO 5817:2014. https://www.iso.org/standard/54952.html
Solland, G. , Lotsberg, I. , Bjørheim, L. G. , Ersdal, G. , Gjerstad, V.-A. , and Smedley, P. , 2009, “New Standard for Assessment of Structural Integrity for Existing Load-Bearing Structures-NORSOK N-006,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2009-79379. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263652341_New_Standard_for_Assessment_of_Structural_Integrity_for_Existing_Load-Bearing_Structures-Norsok_N-006
DNV, 2014, “Design of Offshore Wind Turbine Structures,” DNV, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. DNV-OS-J101.
Lotsberg, I. , and Solland, G. , 2013, “Assessment of Capacity of Grouted Connections in Piled Jacket Structures,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2013-10850.
Lotsberg, I. , 2004, “Fatigue Design of Welded Pipe Penetrations in Plated Structures,” Mar. Struct., 17(1), pp. 29–51. [CrossRef]
Lotsberg, I. , 2016, Fatigue Design of Marine Structures, Cambridge University Press, New York.
Taraldsen, A. , 1985, “Anchor Chain Fractures,” Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 6–9, Paper No. OTC-5059-MS.
Lereim, J. , 1985, “Summary of the 4-Year Research Project: Anchor Chain Cables Offshore,” Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 6–9, Paper No. OTC-5060-MS.
Vargas, P.-M. , Hsu, T.-M. , and Lee, W. K. , 2004, “Stress Concentration Factors for Stud-Less Mooring Chain Links in Fairleads,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2004-51376.
Fredheim, S. , Reinholdtsen, S.-A. , Håskoll, L. , and Lie, H. B. , 2013, “Corrosion Fatigue Testing of Used, Studless, Offshore Mooring Chain,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2013-10609.
DNV, 2010, “Position Mooring,” DNV, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. DNV-OS-E301. https://rules.dnvgl.com/docs/pdf/DNV/codes/docs/2010-10/OS-E301.pdf
Mührer, C. , 1995, DNV Hull Structural Rules: Development, Background, Motivations, Det Norske Veritas, Oslo, Norway.
DNV, 1993, “Fatigue Assessment of Ship Structures,” Det Norske Veritas, Oslo, Norway, Report No. 93-0432.
DNV, 1997, Fatigue Assessment of Ship Structures, Det Norske Veritas, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. CN 30.7.
Fricke, W. , and Petershagen, H. , 1992, “Detail Design of Welded Ship Structures Based on Hot-Spot Stresses,” 5th International Symposium on Practical Design of Ships and Mobile Units (PRADS), Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK, May 17–22, pp. 2.1087–2.1099.
Lotsberg, I. , Cramer, E. , Holtsmark, G. , Løseth, R. , Olaisen, K. , and Valsgård, S. , 1997, “Fatigue Assessment of Floating Production Vessels,” Behaviour of Offshore Structures (BOSS'97), Delft, The Netherlands, July 7–10.
Lotsberg, I. , 2006, “Assessment of Fatigue Capacity in the New Bulk Carrier and Tanker Rules,” Mar. Struct., 19(1), pp. 83–96. [CrossRef]
Urm, H. S. , Yoo, I. S. , Heo, J. H. , Kim, S. C. , and Lotsberg, I. , 2004, “Low Cycle Fatigue Strength Assessment for Ship Structures,” Ninth International Symposium on Practical Design of Ships and Other Floating Structures (PRADS), Lüebeck, Germany, Sept. 12–17, pp. 12–17.
DNV, 2014, Fatigue Assessment of Ship Structures, DNV, Oslo, Norway, DNV CN 30.7.
Valsgård, S. , Lotsberg, I. , Sigurdsson, G. , and Mørk, K. , 2010, “Fatigue Design of Steel Containment Cylinders for CNG Application,” Mar. Struct., 23(2), pp. 209–225. [CrossRef]
Kvamsdal, R. S. , and Howard, J. L. , 1972, “Moss Rosenberg's Spherical Tank LNG—Carrier,” First International Liquefied Gas Transportation Conference, London, Mar. 21–22.
Tenge, P. , and Solli, O. , 1973, “Fracture Mechanics in the Design of Large Spherical Tanks for Ship Transport of LNG,” Conference on Welding Low Temperature Containment Plant, The Welding Institute, London, Nov. 20–22, pp. 149–158. https://trid.trb.org/view/13191
Aamodt, B. , Bergan, P. G. , and Klem, H. F. , 1973, “Calculation of Stress Intensity Factors and Fatigue Crack Propagation of Semi-Elliptical Part-Through Surface Cracks,” Second Interantional Conference on Pressure Vessel Technology, Part 2, San Antonio, TX, Oct., pp. 911–921.
Tenge, P. , Solli, O. , and Førli, O. , 1974, “Significance of Defects in LNG-Tanks in Ships,” ASTM Symposium on Properties of Materials for Liquid Natural Gas Tankage, Boston, MA, May 21–22.
Germanischer Lloyd, 1978, “Vorschriften für Klassifikation und Bau von Stählernen Seeschiffen,” Band I, Hamburg, Germany.
Germanischer Lloyd, 1992, “Rules for Classification and Construction,” Ship Technology, Seagoing Ships, Hamburg, Germany.
Lotsberg, I. , Nygård, M. , and Thompson, T. , 1998, “Fatigue of Ship Shaped Production and Storage Units,” Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 4–7, Paper No. OTC-8775-MS.
Bultema, S. , Krekel, M. , and Van den Boom, H. , 2000, “FPSO Integrity: JIP on FPSO Fatigue Loads,” Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 1–4, Paper No. OTC-12142-MS.
Lotsberg, I. , 2000, “Background and Status of the FPSO Fatigue Capacity JIP,” Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 1–4, Paper No. OTC-12144-MS.
Fricke, W. , 2001, “Recommended Hot-Spot Analysis Procedure for Structural Details of Ships and FPSOs Based on Round-Robin FE Analyses,” 11th International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE), Stavanger, Norway, June 17–22, Paper No. ISOPE-02-12-1-040. https://www.onepetro.org/journal-paper/ISOPE-02-12-1-040
Lotsberg, I. , 2009, “Fatigue Capacity of Load Carrying Fillet Welded Connections Subjected to Axial and Shear Loading,” ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng., 131(4), p. 041302. [CrossRef]
Abson, D. J. , and Pisarski, H. G. , 2004, “Demonstration of In-Situ Weld Repair of a FPSO Hull,” ASME Paper No. OMAE-FPSO'04-0037.
Sigurdsson, G. , Landet, E. , and Lotsberg, I. , 2004, “Inspection Planning of a Critical Block Weld in an FPSO,” ASME Paper No. OMAE-FPSO'04-0032
Lotsberg, I. , Skjelby, T. , Vareide, K. , Amundsgård, Ø. , and Landet, E. , 2006, “A New DNV Recommended Practice for Fatigue Analysis of Offshore Ships,” ASME Paper No OMAE2006-92370.
DNV, 2016, “Design of Offshore Steel Structures, General—LRFD Method,” DNV GL, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. DNVGL-OS-C101. https://rules.dnvgl.com/docs/pdf/dnvgl/os/2015-07/DNVGL-OS-C101.pdf
DNV, 2015, “Structural Design of Offshore Ships,” DNV GL, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. DNVGL-OS-C102. https://rules.dnvgl.com/docs/pdf/dnvgl/OS/2015-07/DNVGL-OS-C102.pdf
Lotsberg, I. , and Rove, H. , 2014, “Stress Concentration Factors for Butt Welds in Plated Structures,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2014-23316.
Lotsberg, I. , Serednicki, A. , Bertnes, H. , and Lervik, A. , 2012, “Design of Grouted Connections for Monopile Offshore Structures,” Stahlbau, 81(9), pp. 695–704. [CrossRef]
Lotsberg, I. , and Fredheim, S. , 2009, “Assessment of Design S-N Curve for Umbilical Tubes,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2009-79201.
Macdonald, K. A. , Madox, S. J. , and Haagensen, P. , 2000, “Guidance for Fatigue Design and Assessment of Pipeline Girth Welds,” HSE Report, London.
BS, 1993, “Code of Practice for Fatigue Design and Assessment of Steel Structures,” British Standards Institution, London, Standard No. BS 7608.
Lotsberg, I. , and Holth, P. A. , 2007, “Stress Concentrations Factors in Welded Tubular Sections and Pipelines,” ASME Paper No. OMAE 2007-29571.
Maddox, S. , and Johnston, C. , 2011, “Factors Affecting the Fatigue Strength of Girth Welds: An Evaluation of TWI's Resonance Fatigue Test Data Base,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2011-49192.
Horn, A. , Lotsberg, I. , and Ørjasæther, O. , 2018, “The Rationale for Update of S-N Curves for Single Sided Girth Welds for Risers and Pipelines in DNVGL-RP-C203 Based on Fatigue Performance of More Than 1700 Full Scale Test Results,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2018-78408.
DNV, 2010, “Dynamic Risers,” DNV, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. DNV-OS-F201. https://rules.dnvgl.com/docs/pdf/DNV/codes/docs/2010-10/Os-F201.pdf
DNV, 2010, “Riser Fatigue,” DNV, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. DNV-RP-F204. https://rules.dnvgl.com/docs/pdf/DNV/codes/docs/2010-10/RP-F204.pdf
DNV, 2013, “Submarine Pipeline Systems,” DNV, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. DNV-OS-F101 https://rules.dnvgl.com/docs/pdf/DNV/codes/docs/2013-10/OS-F101.pdf.
DNV, 2006, “Free Spanning Pipelines,” DNV, Oslo, Norway, Standard No. DNV-RP-F105. https://rules.dnvgl.com/docs/pdf/DNV/codes/docs/2006-02/RP-F105.pdf

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic procedure for establishing the long-term stress range distribution in a deterministic fatigue analysis

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

S–N curves in air and seawater

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic stress distributions at a hot spot

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Different S–N curves to be used together with different stress ranges

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Figure illustrating stub section in a simple tubular joint

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Potential fatigue cracks in simple tubular joints

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Sketch of jacket leg with pile and pile sleeve as typically used in 2016

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Hydrophone support inserted in one of the main braces of the Alexander L. Kielland platform (based on NOU 1981:11 [24])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Sketch of the Alexander L. Kielland platform with hydrophone support and fatigue crack into the main brace connecting column D to the structure (based on NOU 1981:11 [24])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Principle of a grouted connection in a monopile structure

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In