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Research Papers: CFD and VIV

Breaking Wave Interaction With a Group of Four Vertical Slender Cylinders in Two Square Arrangements

[+] Author and Article Information
Mayilvahanan Alagan Chella

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Norwegian University of Science and Technology,
Trondheim 7491, Norway
e-mail: malaganc@nd.edu

Hans Bihs

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Norwegian University of Science and Technology,
Trondheim 7491, Norway
e-mail: hans.bihs@ntnu.no

Arun Kamath

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Norwegian University of Science and Technology,
Trondheim 7491, Norway
e-mail: arun.kamath@ntnu.no

Dag Myrhaug

Department of Marine Technology,
Norwegian University of Science and Technology,
Trondheim 7491, Norway
e-mail: dag.myrhaug@ntnu.no

Øivind Asgeir Arntsen

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Norwegian University of Science and Technology,
Trondheim 7491, Norway
e-mail: oivind.arntsen@ntnu.no

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. Manuscript received July 8, 2016; final manuscript received April 14, 2019; published online May 17, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Qing Xiao.

J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng 141(6), 061802 (May 17, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: OMAE-16-1079; doi: 10.1115/1.4043597 History: Received July 08, 2016; Accepted April 14, 2019

The main purpose of the study is to investigate the breaking wave interaction with a group of four circular cylinders. The physical process of wave breaking involves many parameters, and an accurate numerical modeling of breaking waves and the interaction with a structure remain a challenge. In the present study, the open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model REEF3D is used to simulate the breaking wave interaction with multiple cylinders. The numerical model is based on the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations, the level set method for the free surface, and the k–ω model for turbulence. The numerical model is validated with experimental data of large-scale experiments for the free surface elevation and the breaking wave force on a single cylinder. A good agreement is obtained between the numerical results and experimental data. Two different configurations with four cylinders are examined: in-line square configuration and diamond square configuration. For both configurations, three different tank widths and four different spacings between the cylinders are investigated. The breaking wave forces on each cylinder in the group are computed for each case for the two configurations, and the results are compared with the breaking wave force on a single isolated cylinder. Furthermore, the study investigates the water surface elevations and the free surface flow features around the cylinders. For the closely spaced cylinders in a relatively narrower tank, the cylinders in both configurations experience the maximum forces lower than the maximum force on a single cylinder. But for the widely spaced cylinder in a relatively wider tank, the forces are higher and lower for the upstream cylinders and downstream cylinders, respectively, than the maximum force on a single isolated cylinder. The results of the present study show that the interference effects from the neighboring cylinders in a group strongly influence the kinematics around and the breaking wave forces on them.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Computational set-up for (a) the validation case, (b) a diamond square configuration, and (c) an in-line square configuration

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Fig. 2

Comparison of measured and computed water surface elevation (η) versus normalized time (t/T) at x = 22.60 m (and y = 0.5 m) near the tank wall

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Fig. 3

Comparison of measured and computed total wave force (F) versus normalized time (t/T)

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Fig. 4

Comparison of measured and computed total wave force (F) versus normalized time (t/T) for three different grid sizes, dx = 0.05 m, 0.10 m, and 0.20 m

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Fig. 5

Comparison of measured and computed total wave force (F) versus normalized time (t/T) for three different grid sizes, dx = 0.05 m, 0.10 m, and 0.20 m

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Fig. 6

Computed normalized wave force (F/F0) on cylinders versus normalized time (t/T) for the diamond square configuration for the tank width of (a) W = 7.0 m (10D), (b) 9.0 m (13D), and (c) 11.0 m (16D)

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Fig. 7

Simulated free surface flow features (isometric-view) with velocity magnitude (m/s) variation for different normalized time (t/T) instants for the diamond square configuration. (a) t/T = 3.2, (b) t/T = 3.25, (c) t/T = 3.32, and (d) t/T = 3.37.

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Fig. 8

Simulated free surface flow features (top-view) with velocity magnitude (m/s) variation for different normalized time (t/T) instants for the diamond square configuration. (a) t/T = 3.2, (b) t/T = 3.25, (c) t/T = 3.32, and (d) t/T = 3.37.

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Fig. 9

Computed water surface elevations in front and back of each cylinder versus normalized time (t/T) for the diamond square configuration

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Fig. 10

Computed normalized wave force (F/F0) on cylinders versus normalized time (t/T) for the diamond square configuration for (a) Sp = 2.80 m (4D) and (b) 4.20 m (6D)

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Fig. 11

Computed normalized wave force (F/F0) on cylinders for the diamond square configurations for different spacing, Sp = 2.10 m (3D), 2.80 m (4D), 3.50 m (5D), and 4.20 m (6D). Black bar: cylinder 1, dark gray bar: cylinder 2, light gray bar: cylinder 3, and white bar: cylinder 4.

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Fig. 12

Computed normalized wave force (F/F0) on cylinders versus normalized time (t/T) for the in-line square configurations for the tank width of (a) W = 7.0 m (10D), (b) 9.0 m (13D), and (c) 11.0 m (16D)

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Fig. 13

Simulated free surface flow features with velocity magnitude (m/s) variation for different normalized time (t/T) instants for the in-line square configuration. (a) t/T = 3.12, (b) t/T = 3.25, (c) t/T = 3.31, and (d) t/T = 3.39.

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Fig. 14

Simulated free surface flow features with velocity magnitude (m/s) variation for different normalized time (t/T) instants for the in-line square configuration. (a) t/T = 3.12, (b) t/T = 3.25, (c) t/T = 3.31, and (d) t/T = 3.39.

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Fig. 15

Computed water surface elevations in front and back of each cylinder versus normalized time (t/T) for the in-line square configuration

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Fig. 16

Computed normalized wave force (F/F0) on cylinders versus normalized time (t/T) for the in-line square configurations: (a) Sp = 2.80 m (4D) and (b) 4.20 m (6D)

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Fig. 17

Computed normalized wave force (F/F0) on cylinders for the in-line square configurations for different spacings, Sp = 2.10 m (3D), 2.80 m (4D), 3.50 m (5D), and 4.20 m (6D). Black bar: cylinder 1, dark gray bar: cylinder 2, light gray bar: cylinder 3, and white bar: cylinder 4.

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