In the manufacturing process of remanufactured products, balancing the life between their components is one of the important measures to achieve full utilization of waste components and sustainable economic development. In order to prolong the life cycle of remanufactured products and increase the life of parts and components, a life balance-considered matching optimization method is proposed for remanufactured parts in the process of components matching. By comprehensively considering the life matching degree of remanufactured parts and the matching success rate, a life balance-considered matching optimization model is established for remanufactured parts. We adopted an improved ant colony algorithm to solve the proposed matching model to get multiple sets of optimal component combinations with minimal life deviations between component combinations. The correctness of the model and the effectiveness of the algorithm are verified by taking the gear reducer component matching process as an example.