For slowly moving freezing fronts in soil, the heat-transport equation may be approximated by the Laplacian of temperature. Consequently, potential theory may be assumed to apply and the temperature state can be approximated by an analytic function. The movement of freezing fronts may be approximated by a time-stepped solution of the phase-change problem, thus solving directly for heat flow across a freezing or thawing front. Moisture transport may approximated by using an exact solution of the moisture-transport equation assuming quasi-steady-state conditions, appropriate boundary conditions, and an exponential function relating unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (defined within the thawed zones) to pore water pressure (tension). This approach is used to develop a single model of ice segregation (frost-heave) in freezing soils. Applications to published and experimental one-dimension soil column freezing data show promising results.

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