Modern boilers, because of their high operating pressures and ratings, and their high rates of heat adsorption, intensify the problems associated with the continuous operation which is of such critical importance in our vast productive program. For instance, actual consumption of the boiler tubes by the high-pressure boiler water must be continuously guarded against. Destructive boiler scale such as that composed of sodium silicate, sodium-aluminum and sodium-iron silicates, sodium sulphate and sodium phosphate, must not be permitted to form. The boilers must not fill up with sludge, and the turbines must be kept free of deposits on their intricate blading. Suspecting that sodium for a number of reasons is of destructive influence in the boiler water, the author has initiated building boiler waters on a potassium basis, with affirmative results that are set forth in this paper.

Starting with substitution in the boiler water of potassium for the universal sodium equilibrium, the author has been led to give consideration to the problems of “hide-out” of boiler-water salts, corrosion by the bonded oxygen of the boiler water, silica in boiler and turbine, equilibria developed in the superheater in any carry-over of boiler water, and under certain conditions, protection from embrittlement. In systematizing the results which must ensue from the complex network of interrelations of temperature, pressure, and concentration, under these conditions, he makes use of the conceptions of the concentrating-film boiler water, generalizes the temperature-pressure-concentration relations in the form of a Δt function, and points out how the relationship of incongruent solubility between water and the silicates must be controlled.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.