Cold-start emissions from current technology vehicles equipped with catalytic converters can account for over 80 percent of the emissions produced during the Federal Test Procedure (FTP). Excessive pollutants can be emitted for a period of one to two minutes following cold engine starting, partially because the catalyst has not reached an efficient operating temperature. Electrically heated catalysts, which are heated prior to engine starting, have been identified as a potential strategy for controlling cold-start emissions. This paper summarizes the emission results of three gasoline-fueled and three methanol-fueled vehicles equipped with electrically heated catalyst systems. Results from these vehicles demonstrate that heated catalyst technology can provide FTP emission levels of nonmethane organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) that show promise of meeting the Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standards established by the California Air Resources Board.
Electrically Heated Catalysts for Cold-Start Emission Control on Gasoline- and Methanol-Fueled Vehicles
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Heimrich, M. J., Albu, S., and Ahuja, M. (July 1, 1992). "Electrically Heated Catalysts for Cold-Start Emission Control on Gasoline- and Methanol-Fueled Vehicles." ASME. J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. July 1992; 114(3): 496–501. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2906616
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