Differences in exhaust emissions, smoke production, exhaust pattern factor, deposit buildup, and fuel nozzle spray characteristics for various blends of conventional commercial jet fuel (Jet A-1) with synthetic and biodiesel formulations were investigated. Three synthetic fuel formulations and four fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were evaluated as such. The synthetic fuels were tested in both neat (100%) and 50% by volume blends with Jet A-1, while the FAME fuels were blended in 2% and 20% proportions. The combustion chamber sector rig, which houses a Rolls Royce T-56-A-15 combustion section, was utilized for emissions, deposits, and exhaust pattern factor evaluation. A combustion chamber exhaust plane traversing thermocouple rake was employed to generate two-dimensional temperature maps during operation. Following combustion testing, several combustion system components, including the combustion chamber, fuel nozzle, and igniter plug, were analyzed for relative levels of deposit buildup. A phase Doppler anemometry system was employed to determine differences in droplet size distributions, while an optical spray pattern analyzer was used to compare the spray pattern for the various fuel blends as they emerged from the T-56 nozzle.
Emissions From a Gas Turbine Sector Rig Operated With Synthetic Aviation and Biodiesel Fuel
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Pucher, G., Allan, W., LaViolette, M., and Poitras, P. (May 19, 2011). "Emissions From a Gas Turbine Sector Rig Operated With Synthetic Aviation and Biodiesel Fuel." ASME. J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. November 2011; 133(11): 111502. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4002844
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