Hydrogen utilization in spark ignition (SI) engines could reduce urban pollution including particulate matter as well as greenhouse gas emission. However, backfiring, which is an undesirable combustion process of intake charge in hydrogen-fueled SI engine with manifold-based injection, is one of the major technical issues in view of safety of engine operation. Backfiring occurs generally during suction stroke as the hydrogen–air charge interacts with residual gas, resulting in flame growth and propagation toward upstream of engine's intake manifold, resulting in stalling of engine operation and high risk of safety. This work is aimed at analysis of backfiring in a hydrogen-fueled SI engine. The results indicate that backfiring is mainly function of residual gas temperature, start of hydrogen injection timing, and equivalence ratio. Any hot-spot present in the cylinder would act as ignition source resulting in more chances of backfiring. In addition to this, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was carried out in order to assess flow characteristics of hydrogen and air during suction stroke in intake manifold. Furthermore, numerical analysis of intake charge velocity, flame speed (deflagration), and flame propagation (backfiring) toward upstream of intake manifold was also carried out. Some notable points of backfiring control strategy including exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and retarded (late) hydrogen injection timing are emerged from this study for minimizing chance of backfiring. This study results are useful for development of dedicated SI engine for hydrogen fuel in the aspects of elimination of backfiring.
A Numerical Simulation of Analysis of Backfiring Phenomena in a Hydrogen-Fueled Spark Ignition Engine
Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 11, 2016; final manuscript received February 25, 2016; published online April 26, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.
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Subramanian, K. A., and Salvi, B. L. (April 26, 2016). "A Numerical Simulation of Analysis of Backfiring Phenomena in a Hydrogen-Fueled Spark Ignition Engine." ASME. J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. October 2016; 138(10): 102811. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4033182
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