One new kind of gas injection devices (GIDs), with moving-coil electromagnetic linear actuator (MCELA) and mushroom-type poppet valve, was projected to inject sufficient compressed natural gas (CNG) to a large-bore port fuel injection (PFI) engine. It had larger mass flow rate and better controllability than conventional GID. And the transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) engine model incorporating the GID's motion was established to analyze the effects of the GID injection angle and poppet valve opening manner on the mixing homogeneity in the intake port, and finally, the in-cylinder mixing performance and gas movement intensity were compared. The results indicate that with the increasing of injection angle, the mixing homogeneity in the near-field injection location of intake port will be better, and the time when fuel starts to get into cylinder will be later. At ignition time, the injection angles 60 deg, 90 deg, and 120 deg show better in-cylinder mixing performance, while 150 deg has the worst. The pull-open GID injects more momentum to the intake port than the push-open one, and the mixing degree both in the intake port and cylinder is higher.

References

1.
Gebre-Mariam
,
Y. K.
,
2011
, “
Testing for Unit Roots, Causality, Co-Integration, and Efficiency: The Case of the Northwest U.S. Natural Gas Market
,”
Energy
,
36
(
5
), pp.
3489
3500
.
2.
Li
,
M. H.
,
Zhang
,
Q.
,
Li
,
G. X.
, and
Shao
,
S. D.
,
2015
, “
Experimental Investigation on Performance and Heat Release Analysis of a Pilot Ignited Direct Injection Natural Gas Engine
,”
Energy
,
90
(
2
), pp.
1251
1260
.
3.
Soberanis Escalante
,
M. A.
, and
Fernandez
,
A. M.
,
2010
, “
A Review on the Technical Adaptations for Internal Combustion Engines to Operate With Gas/Hydrogen Mixtures
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
,
35
(
21
), pp.
12134
12140
.
4.
Bircann
,
R.
,
Kazour
,
Y.
,
Dauer
,
K.
,
Fujita
,
M.
,
Wells
,
A.
,
Kabasin
,
D. F.
, and
Husted
,
H.
,
2013
, “
Cold Performance Challenges With CNG PFI Injectors
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2013-01-0863.
5.
Glasmachers
,
H.
,
Melbert
,
J.
, and
Koch
,
A.
,
2006
, “
Sensorless Movement Control of Solenoid Fuel Injectors
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2006-01-0407.
6.
Einewall
,
P.
,
Tunestål
,
P.
, and
Johansson
,
B.
,
2005
, “
Lean Burn Natural Gas Operation vs. Stoichiometric Operation With EGR and a Three Way Catalyst
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2005-01-0250.
7.
Corbo
,
P.
,
Gambino
,
M.
,
Iannaccone
,
S.
, and
Unich
,
A.
,
1995
, “
Comparison Between Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric Technologies for CNG Heavy-Duty Engines
,”
SAE
Paper No. 950057.
8.
Yamato
,
T.
,
Sekino
,
H.
,
Ninomiya
,
T.
, and
Hayashida
,
M.
,
2001
, “
Stratification of In-Cylinder Mixture Distributions by Tuned Port Injection in a 4-Valve SI Gas Engine
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2001-01-0610.
9.
Berckmüller
,
M.
,
Rottengruber
,
H.
,
Eder
,
A.
,
Brehm
,
N.
,
Elsässer
,
G.
,
Müller-Alander
,
G.
, and
Schwarz
,
C.
,
2003
, “
Potentials of a Charged SI-Hydrogen Engine
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2003-01-3210.
10.
Chintala
,
V.
, and
Subramanian
,
K.
,
2013
, “
A CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) Study for Optimization of Gas Injector Orientation for Performance Improvement of a Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine
,”
Energy
,
57
, pp.
709
721
.
11.
Kim
,
G. H.
,
Kirkpatrick
,
A.
, and
Mitchell
,
C.
,
2004
, “
Computational Modeling of Natural Gas Injection in a Large Bore Engine
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
126
(
3
), pp.
656
664
.
12.
Birch
,
A. D.
,
Brown
,
D. R.
,
Dodson
,
M. G.
, and
Swaffield
,
F.
,
1984
, “
The Structure and Concentration Decay of High Pressure Jets of Natural Gas
,”
Combust. Sci. Technol.
,
36
(
5–6
), pp.
249
261
.
13.
Ewan
,
B. C. R.
, and
Moodie
,
K.
,
1986
, “
Structure and Velocity Measurements in Under-Expanded Jets
,”
Combust. Sci. Technol.
,
45
(
5–6
), pp.
275
288
.
14.
Li
,
Y.
,
Kirkpatrick
,
A.
,
Mitchell
,
C.
, and
Willson
,
B.
,
2004
, “
Characteristic and Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of High-Pressure Gas Jet Injection
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
126
(
1
), pp.
192
197
.
15.
Fric
,
T.
, and
Roshko
,
A.
,
1994
, “
Vortical Structure in the Wake of a Transverse Jet
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
279
, pp.
1
47
.
16.
Wegner
,
B.
,
Huai
,
Y.
, and
Sadiki
,
A.
,
2004
, “
Comparative Study of Turbulent Mixing in Jet in Cross-Flow Configurations Using LES
,”
Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow
,
25
(
5
), pp.
767
775
.
17.
Chang
,
S. Q.
, and
Liu
,
L.
,
2010
, “
A Moving Coil Permanent Magnet Linear Actuator With High Power Density
,” China Patent No. CN101127474B.
18.
Liu
,
L.
, and
Chang
,
S. Q.
,
2011
, “
Motion Control of an Electromagnetic Valve Actuator Based on the Inverse System Method
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D
,
226
(
1
), pp.
85
93
.
19.
Chiodi
,
M.
,
Berner
,
H.
, and
Bargende
,
M.
,
2004
, “
Investigation on Mixture Formation and Combustion Process in a CNG-Engine by Using a Fast Response 3D-CFD-Simulation
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2004-01-3004.
20.
Ali
,
M.
, and
Islam
,
A. S.
,
2006
, “
Study on Main Flow and Fuel Injector Configurations for Scramjet Applications
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
49
(
19
), pp.
3634
3644
.
21.
Aso
,
S.
,
Inoue
,
K.
,
Yamaguchi
,
K.
, and
Tani
,
Y.
,
2009
, “
A Study on Supersonic Mixing by Circular Nozzle With Various Injection Angles for Air Breathing Engine
,”
Acta Astronaut.
,
65
(
5
), pp.
687
695
.
22.
Gao
,
Z.
, and
Lee
,
C.
,
2011
, “
Numerical Research on Mixing Characteristics of Different Injection Schemes for Supersonic Transverse Jet
,”
Sci. China, Ser. E: Technol. Sci.
,
54
(
4
), pp.
883
893
.
23.
Lee
,
S. Y.
,
Huh
,
K. Y.
,
Kim
,
Y. M.
, and
Lee
,
J. H.
,
2001
, “
Analysis of In-Cylinder Fuel–Air Mixture Distribution in a Heavy Duty CNG Engine
,”
Int. J. Automot. Technol.
,
2
(
3
), pp.
93
101
.
24.
Yu
,
X.
,
Liu
,
Z.
,
Wang
,
Z.
, and
Dou
,
H.
,
2012
, “
Optimize Combustion of Compressed Natural Gas Engine by Improving In-Cylinder Flows
,”
Int. J. Automot. Technol.
,
14
(
4
), pp.
539
549
.
You do not currently have access to this content.