Common rail direct injection (CRDI) system is a modern variant of direct injection diesel engine featuring higher fuel injection pressure and flexible injection scheduling which involves two or more pulses. Unlike a conventional diesel engine, the CRDI engine provides simultaneous reduction of oxides of nitrogen and smoke with an injection schedule that has optimized start of injection, fuel quantity in each injection pulse, and dwell periods between them. In this paper, the development of a multizone phenomenological model used for predicting combustion and emission characteristics of multiple injection in CRDI diesel engine is presented. The multizone spray configuration with their temperature and composition histories predicted on phenomenological spray growth and mixing considerations helps accurate prediction of engine combustion and emission (nitric oxide and soot) characteristics. The model predictions of combustion and emissions for multiple injection are validated with measured values over a wide range of speed and load conditions. The multizone and the two-zone model are compared and the reasons for better comparisons for the multizone model with experimental data are also explored.

References

1.
Shundoh
,
S.
,
Komori
,
M.
,
Tsujimura
,
J.
, and
Kobayashi
,
S.
,
1992
, “
NOx Reduction From Diesel Combustion Using Pilot Injection With High Pressure Fuel Injection
,”
SAE
Paper No. 920461.
2.
Nehmer
,
D. A.
, and
Reitz
,
R. D.
,
1994
, “
Measurement of the Effect of Injection Rate and Split Injections on Diesel Engine Soot and NOx Emissions
,”
SAE
Paper No. 940668.
3.
Chen
,
S. K.
,
2000
, “
Simultaneous Reduction of NOx and Particulate Emission Using Multiple Injections in a Small Diesel Engine
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2000-01-3084.
4.
Tow
,
T. C.
,
Pierpont
,
D. A.
, and
Reitz
,
R. D.
,
1994
, “
Reducing Particulate and NOx Using Multiple Injections in a Heavy Duty D.I. Diesel Engine
,”
SAE
Paper No. 940897.
5.
Ishida
,
M.
,
Chen
,
Z. L.
,
Luo
,
G. F.
, and
Ueki
,
H.
,
1994
, “
The Effect of Pilot Injection on Combustion in a Turbocharged D.I. Diesel Engine
,”
SAE
Paper No. 941692.
6.
Beatrice
,
C.
,
Belardini
,
P.
,
Bertoli
,
C.
,
Lisbona
,
M. G.
, and
Sebastiano
,
G. M. R.
,
2002
, “
Diesel Combustion Control in Common Rail Engines by New Injection Strategies
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
3
(
1
), pp.
23
36
.
7.
Pierpont
,
D. A.
,
Montgomery
,
D. T.
, and
Reitz
,
R. D.
,
1995
, “
Reducing Particulate and NOx Using Multiple Injections and EGR in a D.I. Diesel
,”
SAE
Paper No. 950217.
8.
Badami
,
M.
,
Mallamo
,
F.
,
Millo
,
F.
, and
Rossi
,
E. E.
,
2003
, “
Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Multiple Injection Strategies in Emissions, Noise and Brake Specific Fuel Consumption of an Automotive Direct Injection Common-Rail Diesel Engine
,”
Int. J. Engine Res.
,
4
(
4
), pp.
299
314
.
9.
Suh
,
H. K.
,
2011
, “
Investigations of Multiple Injection Strategies for the Improvement of Combustion and Exhaust Emissions Characteristics in a Low Compression Ratio (CR) Engine
,”
Appl. Energy
,
88
(
12
), pp.
5013
5019
.
10.
Barba
,
C.
,
Burkhardt
,
C.
,
Boulouchos
,
K.
, and
Bargende
,
M.
,
2000
, “
A Phenomenological Combustion Model for Heat Release Rate Prediction in High-Speed DI Diesel Engines With Common Rail Injection
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2000-01-2933.
11.
Arsie
,
I.
,
Genova
,
F. D.
,
Pianese
,
C.
,
Rizzo
,
G.
,
Caraceni
,
A.
,
Cioffi
,
P.
, and
Flauti
,
G.
,
2005
, “
Thermodynamic Modeling of Jet Formation and Combustion in Common Rail Multi-Jet Diesel Engines
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2005-01-1121.
12.
Bordet
,
N.
,
Caillol
,
C.
,
Higelin
,
P.
, and
Talon
,
V.
,
2010
, “
A Physical 0D Combustion Model Using Tabulated Chemistry With Presumed Probability Density Function Approach for Multi-Injection Diesel Engines
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2010-01-1493.
13.
Rajkumar
,
S.
,
Mehta
,
P. S.
, and
Bakshi
,
S.
,
2012
, “
Phenomenological Modeling of Combustion and Emissions for Multiple-Injection Common Rail Direct Injection Engines
,”
Int. J. Engine Res.
,
13
(
4
), pp.
307
322
.
14.
Han
,
Z.
,
Uludogan
,
A.
,
Hampson
,
G. J.
, and
Reitz
,
R. D.
,
1996
, “
Mechanism of Soot and NOx Emission Reduction Using Multiple-Injection in a Diesel Engine
,”
SAE
Paper No. 960633.
15.
Kitamura
,
T.
, and
Ito
,
T.
,
2010
, “
Mixing-Controlled, Low Temperature Diesel Combustion With Pressure Modulated Multiple-Injection for HSDI Diesel Engine
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2010-01-0609.
16.
Lucchini
,
T.
,
D'Errico
,
G.
,
Ettorre
,
D.
,
Brusiani
,
F.
,
Bianchi
,
G. M.
,
Montanaro
,
A.
, and
Allocca
,
L.
,
2010
, “
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of High-Pressure Diesel Sprays With Multiple Injections at Engine Conditions
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2010-01-0179.
17.
Lu
,
Y.
,
Yu
,
W.
, and
Su
,
W.
,
2011
, “
Using Multiple Injection Strategies in Diesel PCCI Combustion: Potential to Extend Engine Load, Improve Trade-Off of Emissions and Efficiency
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2011-01-1396.
18.
Mobasheri
,
M.
, and
Peng
,
Z.
,
2012
, “
Investigation of Pilot and Multiple Injection Parameters on Mixture Formation and Combustion Characteristics in a Heavy Duty DI-Diesel Engine
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2012-01-0142.
19.
Bonandrini
,
G.
,
Gioia
,
R. D.
,
Papaleo
,
D.
, and
Venturoli
,
L.
,
2012
, “
Numerical Study on Multiple Injection Strategies in DISI Engines for Particulate Emission Control
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2012-01-0400.
20.
Li
,
J.
,
Chae
,
J. O.
,
Lee
,
S. M.
, and
Jeong
,
J. S.
,
1996
, “
Modeling the Effects of Split Injection Scheme on Soot and NO Emissions of Direct Injection Diesel Engines by a Phenomenological Combustion Model
,”
SAE
Paper No. 962062.
21.
Arsie
,
I.
,
Genova
,
F. D.
,
Mogavero
,
A.
,
Pianese
,
C.
,
Rizzo
,
G.
,
Caraceni
,
A.
,
Cioffi
,
P.
, and
Flauti
,
G.
,
2006
, “
A Multi-Zone Predictive Modeling of Common Rail Multi-Injection Diesel Engines
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2006-01-1384.
22.
Kuleshov
,
A. S.
,
2006
, “
Use of Multi-Zone DI Diesel Spray Combustion Model for Simulation and Optimization of Performance and Emissions of Engines With Multiple Injection
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2006-01-1385.
23.
Hountalas
,
D. T.
,
Kouremenos
,
D. A.
, and
Pariotis
,
E. G.
,
2002
, “
Using a Phenomenological Multi-Zone Model to Investigate the Effect of Injection Rate Shaping on Performance and Pollutants of a DI Heavy Duty Diesel Engine
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2002-01-0074.
24.
Shenghua
,
L.
,
Hwang
,
J. W.
,
Park
,
J. K.
,
Kim
,
M. H.
, and
Chae
,
J. O.
,
1999
, “
Multizone Model for DI Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions
,”
SAE
Paper No. 1999-01-2926.
25.
Rether
,
D.
,
Grill
,
M.
,
Schmid
,
A.
, and
Bargende
,
M.
,
2010
, “
Quasi-Dimensional Modeling of CI-Combustion With Multiple Pilot- and Post Injections
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2010-01-0150.
26.
Jung
,
D.
, and
Assanis
,
D. N.
,
2001
, “
Multi-Zone DI Diesel Spray Combustion Model for Cycle Simulation Studies of Engine Performance and Emissions
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2001-01-1246.
27.
Hiroyasu
,
H.
, and
Kadota
,
T.
,
1983
, “
Development and Use of a Spray Combustion Modelling to Predict Diesel Engine Efficiency and Pollutant Emissions (Part 1 Combustion Modelling)
,”
Bull. JSME
,
26
(
214
), pp.
569
575
.
28.
Liu
,
Y.
,
Tao
,
F.
,
Foster
,
D. E.
, and
Reitz
,
R. D.
,
2005
, “
Application of a Multiple-Step Phenomenological Soot Model to HSDI Diesel Multiple Injection Modeling
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2005-01-0924.
29.
Bazari
,
Z.
,
1992
, “
A DI Diesel Combustion and Emission Predictive Capability for Use in Cycle Simulation
,”
SAE
Paper No. 920462.
30.
Kouremenos
,
D. A.
,
Rakopoulos
,
C. D.
, and
Hountalas
,
D. T.
,
1997
, “
Multi-Zone Combustion Modeling for the Prediction of Pollutants Emission and Performance of DI Diesel Engines
,”
SAE
Paper No. 970635.
31.
Stiesch
,
G.
, and
Merker
,
G. P.
,
1999
, “
A Phenomenological Model for Accurate and Time Efficient Prediction of Heat Release and Exhaust Emissions in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines
,”
SAE
Paper No. 1999-01-1535.
32.
Gao
,
Z.
, and
Schreiber
,
W.
,
2001
, “
A Phenomenologicallly Based Computer Model to Predict Soot and NOx Emission in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine
,”
Int. J. Engine Res.
,
2
(
3
), pp.
177
188
.
33.
Cui
,
Y.
,
Deng
,
K.
, and
Wo
,
J.
,
2001
, “
A Direct Injection Diesel Combustion Model for Use in Transient Condition Analysis
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D
,
215
(
9
), pp.
995
1004
.
34.
Rajkumar
,
S.
,
2013
, “
Phenomenological Modeling of Multiple-Injection Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) Diesel Engines
,” Ph.D. thesis, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India.
35.
Hiroyasu
,
H.
,
Arai
,
M.
, and
Tabata
,
M.
,
1989
, “
Empirical Equations for the Sauter Mean Diameter of a Diesel Spray
,”
SAE
Paper No. 890464.
36.
Stiesch
,
G.
, and
Merker
,
G. P.
,
1998
, “
A Phenomenological Heat Release Model for Direct Injection Diesel Engines
,”
22nd CIMAC International Congress on Combustion Engines
, Copenhagen, Denmark, Vol.
2
, pp.
423
430
.
37.
Dent
,
J. C.
, and
Mehta
,
P. S.
,
1981
, “
Phenomenological Combustion Model for a Quiescent Chamber Diesel Engine
,”
SAE
Paper No. 811235.
38.
Chin
,
J. S.
, and
Lefebvre
,
A. H.
,
1983
, “
Steady-State Evaporation Characteristics of Hydrocarbon Fuel Drops
,”
AIAA J.
,
21
(
10
), pp.
1437
1443
.
39.
Glassman
,
I.
,
1987
,
Combustion
, 2nd ed.,
Academic Press Ltd.
,
London
.
40.
Nishida
,
K.
, and
Hiroyasu
,
H.
,
1989
, “
Simplified Three-Dimensional Modeling of Mixture Formation and Combustion in a DI Diesel Engine
,”
SAE
Paper No. 890269.
41.
Magnussen
,
R. F.
, and
Hjertager
,
B. H.
,
1976
, “
On Mathematical Modeling of Turbulent Combustion With Special Emphasis on Soot Formation and Combustion
,”
Symp. (Int.) Combust.
,
16
(1), pp.
719
729
.
42.
Bhaskar
,
T.
,
2000
, “
Modeling of Combustion and Emission Processes in Direct Injection Diesel Engine
,” Ph.D. thesis, Indian Institute of Technology-Madras, Chennai, India.
43.
Hohenberg
,
G. F.
,
1979
, “
Advanced Approaches for Heat Transfer Calculations
,”
SAE
Paper No. 790825.
44.
Arsie
,
I.
,
Genova
,
F. D.
,
Pianese
,
C.
,
Sorrentino
,
M.
,
Rizzo
,
G.
,
Caraceni
,
A.
,
Cioffi
,
P.
, and
Flauti
,
G.
,
2004
, “
Development and Identification of Phenomenological Models for Combustion and Emissions of Common-Rail Multi-Jet Diesel Engines
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2004-01-1877.
45.
Fusco
,
A.
,
Knox-Kelecy
,
A. L.
, and
Foster
,
D. E.
,
1994
, “
Application of a Phenomenological Soot Model to Diesel Engine Combustion
,”
COMODIA
, pp.
571
576
.
46.
Nagle
,
J.
, and
Strickland-Constable
,
R. F.
,
1962
, “
Oxidation of Carbon Between 1000-20,000 C
,” Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Carbon, Pergamon, London, pp. 571–576.
You do not currently have access to this content.