Fluid-induced instability in rotating systems due to the presence of hydrodynamic journal bearings consists of an undesirable phenomenon with a considerable destructive potential. Surface texturing of journal bearings is currently investigated as a possible approach to improve the stability characteristics of rotating systems. Thereby, this work aims to evaluate the influence of textured journal bearings in the stability threshold and unstable vibration mode of rotating systems. The classical Reynolds equation is used to model the pressure distribution inside the bearing, being solved by the finite volume method (FVM). The rotating system evaluated in this work is a steam turbine that is modeled using the finite element method (FEM). Numerical results show that textured geometric parameters, i.e., shape, area density, and maximum depth, are capable of changing the stability threshold (for worse or better) as well as the corresponding unstable vibration mode. Moreover, the present study also indicates that a full texturing of journal bearings is desirable to achieve a better improvement in the stability threshold when compared with partial texturing. Based on the results obtained in this work, the textured journal bearings represent a promising and feasible tool to improve the stability conditions of rotating systems in industrial applications.