This paper presents the effect of a single spanwise two-dimensional wire upon the downstream position of boundary layer transition under steady and unsteady inflow conditions. The study is carried out on a high turning, high-speed, low pressure turbine (LPT) profile designed to take account of the unsteady flow conditions. The experiments were carried out in a transonic cascade wind tunnel to which a rotating bar system had been added. The range of Reynolds and Mach numbers studied includes realistic LPT engine conditions and extends up to the transonic regime. Losses are measured to quantify the influence of the roughness with and without wake passing. Time resolved measurements such as hot wire boundary layer surveys and surface unsteady pressure are used to explain the state of the boundary layer. The results suggest that the effect of roughness on boundary layer transition is a stability governed phenomena, even at high Mach numbers. The combination of the effect of the roughness elements with the inviscid Kelvin–Helmholtz instability responsible for the rolling up of the separated shear layer (Stieger, R. D., 2002, Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University) is also examined. Wake traverses using pneumatic probes downstream of the cascade reveal that the use of roughness elements reduces the profile losses up to exit Mach numbers of 0.8. This occurs with both steady and unsteady inflow conditions.
The Effects of a Trip Wire and Unsteadiness on a High-Speed Highly Loaded Low-Pressure Turbine Blade
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Vera, M., Hodson, H. P., and Vazquez, R. (March 1, 2004). "The Effects of a Trip Wire and Unsteadiness on a High-Speed Highly Loaded Low-Pressure Turbine Blade." ASME. J. Turbomach. October 2005; 127(4): 747–754. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1934446
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