Formation mechanisms for turbine roughness are manifold, including erosion, corrosion, deposition, and spallation or more recently additive manufacturing processes. Consequently, the resulting surfaces differ remarkably not only in roughness shape, height, and density but also in element thermal conductivity. Because the roughness elements extend into the boundary layer, their temperature distribution has a direct influence on the thermal boundary layer and thus on the resulting convective heat transfer. In the current study, heat transfer distributions along a flat plate with more than 20 deterministic rough surface topographies that differ in element eccentricity, height and density are measured. For each surface roughness, measurements are conducted using two different element thermal conductivities (0.2 W/(mK) and 30 W/(mK)), two pressure distributions, four Reynolds numbers between 3 × 105 and 7.5 × 105 and various inlet turbulence intensities in the range of 1.5 % to 8 %. The pressure distributions resemble a typical suction and pressure side, respectively. Results show a heat transfer increase of up to 60 % for the high thermal conductivity surfaces and up to 50 % for the low conductivity ones. While heat transfer on the high conductivity surfaces is always higher than on the low conductivity ones, the difference becomes smaller with decreasing element density.